Antisemitism Essay Generic Hatred In Memory Simon Wiesenthal

Antisemitism Essay Generic Hatred In Memory Simon Wiesenthal-21
Interestingly enough, the Second Crusade was preceded by calls for protection of the Jews by prominent churchman, such as Bernard of Clairvaux.19 Even this call, however, was built upon antisemitic stereotypes, as Bernard wrote: "the Jews are not to be persecuted, killed, or even put to flight...for they remind up always of what our Lord suffered.

Interestingly enough, the Second Crusade was preceded by calls for protection of the Jews by prominent churchman, such as Bernard of Clairvaux.19 Even this call, however, was built upon antisemitic stereotypes, as Bernard wrote: "the Jews are not to be persecuted, killed, or even put to flight...for they remind up always of what our Lord suffered.

The Book of Revelations described the "Synagogue of Satan" (, 3:9) making explicit a linked identity between the Devil and the Jews that would continue for centuries; and in particular, the language of John Chrysostom (late 4 Century) stood out for it's invective.14 As the Roman world became Christianized, these attitudes were reflected in the legal codes, such as that of Theodosian (438).

This code forbade Jews from interfering with conversions to Christianity, from owning Christian slaves (and later any slaves - thus helping remove Jews from all except small substinance farming), from proselytization amongst Christians, and from building new synagogues, and throughout all this Judaism was referred to as "nefarious," "sacrilegious" and in other negative terms.15 Ultimately, for Christianity, Jews had not only become dispersed (punished) for the crime of deicide committed in their degenerate condition, but Christianity "had polarized the actors of the Bible (original-Old Testament) into bad Jews and good Hebrews and thought of themselves as the descendants of the Hebrews and the true Israel."16 In this reading, all of God's promises and blessings were earmarked for Christianity and all the curses and punishments were reserved for Judaism.

A survey of classical authors who commented on Jews or Judaism found that 18% were favorable, 59% neutral and 23% unfavorable.7 Cohen concludes his discussion by saying that "a discussion of Anti-Judaism in antiquity that ignores the other half of the question, the power of the attraction exerted by Judaism in the Greco-Roman world, is lachrymose indeed."8 This distinction is extremely important to keep in mind.

Antisemitism usually does not exist in a vacuum, but rather exist in a context of both balance and nuance.

- legal restrictions, physical violence, etc.).2 These descriptions are often modified by reference to a specific type of antisemitism, such as "economic", "racial" or "theological" antisemitism.

Although the subject has been studied from many perspectives and disciplines, there is still much that remains uncertain, including questions regarding its origins and the motives of its adherents.

They are dispersed all over the world so by expiating their crime they may be everywhere the living witness of our redemption."20 Jewish protection was thus linked to Christian witness.

It was also around this period that circumstances (economic growth that required fluid capital, along with Church attacks on Christian usury against Christians), combined with the traditional limitations on the Jewish presence in certain professions (agriculture, guilds, etc.) to create a specific Jewish specialization in banking and moneylending that would lead to further stereotyping.

Both groups had strong proselytizing tendencies, and eventually they competed against each other for the ultimate prize - the Roman Empire.

It was this competition that drove Paul to eliminate compliance to Jewish Law as a requirement for conversion; a move which "changed the course of the world's history."9 The picture derived from those early sources, including the Gospels and the Church Fathers, has been termed "The Teachings of Contempt."10 These teachings develop three themes: A) Jews were responsible for .13 It was not only what was said, but the heavily charged language that helped create this "Adversus Judaus" tradition.

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