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In addition, many still feel torn between the conflicting demands of family and career and guilt for not being able to spend more time with their children.
The percentage of child care provided by day care centers had increased from 6 percent in 1965 to 28 percent in 1990, partly because the influx of women into the workforce had narrowed the pool of female relatives and friends available to take care of other people's children.
Between 19, employment by day care centers increased over 250 percent, representing a gain of almost 400,000 new jobs.
Their attitudes toward their jobs and their decisions about child care are shaped by a range of social and economic factors: Working mothers in many fields experience conflicts between motherhood and professional advancement.
Many report that once they have children their professional aspirations are not taken as seriously by colleagues or superiors.
The book reported that the husbands of working mothers shoulder, on average, only one-third of the couple's household duties.
Hochschild also noted that the tasks performed most often by men, such as repairs and home maintenance chores, can often be done at their convenience, as opposed to women's duties, such as cooking, which must be done on a daily basis and at specific times, giving women less control over their schedules.With growing numbers of women confronting the competing pressures of work and home life, observers predicted that these women's needs would be accommodated by significant changes in how things were managed on both fronts: a domestic revolution in sex roles at home and a major shift toward enlightened attitudes and policies toward women in the workplace.Although there have been some changes, they have not been substantial enough to prevent many working mothers from feeling that the price for "having it all" is too high.The rapid influx of women into the labor force that began in the 1970s was marked by the confidence of many women in their ability to successfully pursue a career while meeting the needs of their children.Throughout the 1970s and 1980s the dominant ideal of the working mother was the "Supermom"; juggling meetings, reports, and presentations with birthday parties, science projects, and soccer games.The number of single mothers with full-time year-round jobs increased from 39 percent in 1996 to 49 percent in 2002.A growing percentage of married women living with their husbands work as well: 40 percent worked full time in 1992, compared with 16 percent in 1970.In addition, they often worked at tasks traditionally done by the opposite sex: boys cooked, cleaned, and babysat; girls helped with home repairs and yard work.A supplementary benefit of this development is that the daughters of single mothers have a greater than average likelihood of entering traditionally male professions offering higher pay and better opportunities for advancement. Department of Commerce's Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) reported in 1997 that one married father in four provided care for at least one child under the age of 15 while the child's mother was working.The major options for child care include staggered work hours that allow parents to meet all child care needs themselves; care by relatives or close friends; hiring a babysitter or housekeeper; and child care in a private home or at public facilities, including day care centers, nursery schools or preschools, and company-sponsored programs.In 1990, provisions for children under the age of five were split almost equally between in-home care by parents or other relatives and out-of-home care by nonrelatives.