The literature on travel demographics and mode choice provides information about individuals and their travel patterns at the aggregate level and by using variables such as income, race/ethnicity, gender, and age.
These findings provide useful insight into the modes that travelers use and the purpose, duration, and distance of trips.
Increasing numbers of young people are moving through the education system in ways that were not foreseen even a few decades ago.
Too often, they are defined in terms of linguistic deficiency and their experience of other ways of learning is ignored.
However, we know much less about the ways people experience travel, both physically and emotionally, and the effects these experiential aspects can have on individual travel decisions.
This research uses ethnographic fieldwork methods to examine the experience of bus travel, and particularly behaviors, types of interactions, and social expectations on buses.It shows how their migration ‘trajectories’ are a crucial resource as they make sense of the school, and how they draw together resources from other times and places as they do (a process I describe as ‘networking’).The study also shows classrooms to be complex sociolinguistic environments with distinct interactional spaces, allowing the young people great flexibility as they encounter and negotiate the institution and each other.The thesis employs a bricolage of theories within a sociological framework, through the lens of media logic, and draws on the author’s own perspective of working in a newsroom and, currently, in an academic media faculty.The research provides observed examples of the ways in which changing boundaries are impacting definitions of journalism and who is a journalist; it proposes best practice for the use of metrics and analytics in newsrooms that might better situate media outlets to serve their communities and survive in a rapidly changing media landscape; it offers suggestions for media scholars on best practice to perform research that better reflects newsroom routines particular to the use of metrics and analytics; the thesis contributes a new gatekeeping model that identifies two primary channels related specifically to the use of metrics and analytics: promotional and developmental; finally, the thesis demonstrates how a bricolage of complementary theories and the selection of multiple sites of study might best support the reflexive investigation of complex social structures within a rapidly changing field.Very often, they are classified as ‘EAL’ (because they use English as an additional language) and are required to learn the majority language so that they can access the curriculum.I argue that this needs rethinking to take account of the skills, experiences and aspirations of the young people. The first describes the setting and the broader context, and sets out the methodology that I follow in this study.Lastly, various types of stigma management occur in bus spaces.Riders both respond to and ignore particular stigmatized riders - the outcasts, the disruptors, and the freeloaders.People also manage the modal stigma of buses through such strategies as complaining, commiserating, destigmatizing the bus-riding experience, and reconceptualizing the bus-rider identity.The use of metrics and analytics is now embedded in and directly impacting newsroom practice and routines.