Functions Of Political Parties Essays

Electorates have only a limited power to determine government policies.Most elections do not directly establish public policy but instead confer on a small group of officials the authority to make policy (through laws and other devices) on behalf of the electorate as a whole.

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Nonpartisanship in the United States started as a reform movement in the early 20th century and was intended in part to isolate local politics from politics at the state and national levels.

During the last decades of the 20th century, the significance of political parties declined in many democratic countries as “candidate-centred” politics emerged and campaigning and accountability became highly personalized.

Elections enable voters to select leaders and to hold them accountable for their performance in office.

Accountability can be undermined when elected leaders do not care whether they are reelected or when, for historical or other reasons, one party or coalition is so dominant that there is effectively no choice for voters among alternative candidates, parties, or policies.

The actual instrument of recall is usually a letter of resignation signed by the elected representative before assuming office.

During the term of office, the letter can be evoked by a quorum of constituents if the representative’s performance fails to meet their expectations.

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As forms of direct democracy, such devices reflect a reluctance to entrust full decision-making power to elected representatives.

However, because voter turnout in these types of elections often is quite low, voting in referenda and initiatives may be more easily influenced by political parties and interest groups than voting in officeholder elections.

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