For each of the four explanations, followed typical structure of: (a) definition; (b) when might happen; (c) evidence supporting explanation; (d) limitations of this explanation as being “the whole story” (this is the “critical” part of a critical review). “Whilst normative social influence may explain the conformity that occurs in …, it is an unlikely explanation for memory conformity that may occur when people give individual statements following discussion in the absence of their co-witness. “The suggestion that memory conformity is a result of biased guessing is similar to the informational influence explanation because in both instances …
However, the distinguishing feature between the two explanations is that …” …
It does NOT reference and list all of the material you have cited in your paper.
One way to conceive of a literature review is to think about writing it as you would build a bookshelf.
“Whilst biased guessing may account for the misinformation effect that occurs in some instances (refs.), research suggests that it is not the only reason for the occurrence of the misinformation effect. This suggests that the misinformation effect may be due at least partially to memory impairment, rather than just biased guessing.” 5.
Sums up what has been learned from the review of the four current theoretical explanations. “Informational influence, biased guessing, and modification of memory may help to explain why memory conformity occurs when participants are tested individually, as they are in the studies presented in this thesis. The research presented in this thesis compares these alternative explanations to determine which best explains memory conformity in individual recall following co-witness discussion. “One way to determine whether memory conformity occurs because of biased guessing is to …” “Experiments described in this thesis (Studies 5-7) include a warning for some participants about possible misinformation in an attempt to determine whether participants report misinformation because of informational influence or memory change.” 7.
The whole paper should indicate three key components.
If you can manage to provide the necessary information for each of the three points and do it in a logical and appropriate manner, then you are half-way to the desired high grade!
“ on collaborative memory is that the memory of groups is compared with that of individuals. group performance should not be compared with individual performance but rather with ‘nominal groups’ comprised of pooled, non-redundant data from the same number of people tested individually.” 8. Most research involving the Experimentally Induced Information methodology seeks to identify the influence of misinformation presented by one witness to another, and therefore the assumption is made that discussion between witnesses is a detrimental process. “While the misinformation effect is a well-established phenomenon, ‘what remains in dispute is the nature of a satisfactory theoretical explanation’ (ref.). Therefore, in order to understand why memory conformity occurs, we must draw from both cognitive research on memory and social research on conformity.
In this section, relevant cognitive and social theories are discussed in order to (1) explain the occurrence of memory conformity and (2) describe factors that influence memory conformity.” 3.