Literature Review On Cervical Cancer

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Western and Eastern Africa are high risk areas for cervical cancer with women having a 3.4% cumulative risk of developing cervical cancer during their lifetime compared to a 0.5% lifetime risk of cervical cancer for women in North America risk of [9].

Decreases in HPV prevalence in North America have been linked to HPV vaccination [10]; however, the high cost of HPV vaccine may make it unaffordable or unavailable in many African countries [4].

The American Cancer Society, American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and U. Preventive Services Task Force (2012) recommend Pap screening begin at age 21 years and be completed every 3 years until women are over 65 years.

Women ages 30-65 years may alternatively choose co-testing with HPV and Pap screening every 5 years.

Cervical cancer screening has successfully decreased cervical cancer incidence and mortality [5] in developed countries.

However, screening in most African countries remains inaccessible and underutilized by African women [6].Cervical cancer is rare in women less than 21 years of age, and screening in adolescent females has been shown to increase cost and anxiety without decreasing incidence of cervical cancer [13].Hence, cervical cancer screening is not recommended for adolescent females [14].Cervical cancer incidence rates are highest in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, Melanesia, and the Caribbean and are lowest in Western Asia, Australia, New Zealand, and North America.There is significant variation in cervical cancer rates by geographical region, which reflects differences in the availability and utilization of cervical cancer screening based upon geographical area [2].The high HPV prevalence in African women translates to a high burden of cervical cancer in African women as well as an increased risk of cervical cancer for African women who immigrate to the United States (U. Receiving Papanicolau smear (Pap) screening according to recommended guidelines significantly reduces cervical cancer morbidity and mortality and is the most commonly used prevention strategy for cervical cancer worldwide [12].Pap screening can find precancerous cervical abnormalities as well as detect cervical cancer at early and at treatable stages.Implementation of grassroots enlightenment and screening programs are warranted in this population to decrease the screening disparity experienced by this burgeoning population.Based on the findings from this review, African Immigrant (AI) women should be targeted for education about the importance of cervical cancer screening to bridge the knowledge gaps and multilevel initiatives could lead to improved access and utilization of screening services among this growing immigrant population.The common factors influencing cervical cancer screening practices among AIs included immigration status, health care interactions, knowledge deficiency, religiosity and certain personal characteristics.A multilevel approach to address the factors influencing screening practices among AIs is essential for improving adherence to screening guidelines.


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