Several publications have been addressing qualitative and sometimes quantitative analysis of individual bonding mechanisms.
To our knowledge there is no publication quantifying all bonding mechanisms.
A dilute suspension of fibers in water is prepared and evenly distributed on a fine mesh.
The water is removed through the mesh and the remaining fiber mat is pressed and dried.
The process of papermaking requires substantial amounts of energy and wood consumption, which contributes to larger environmental costs.
In order to optimize the production of papermaking to suit its many applications in material science and engineering, a quantitative understanding of bonding forces between the individual pulp fibers is of importance.Here we show the first approach to quantify the bonding energies contributed by the individual bonding mechanisms.We calculated the impact of the following mechanisms necessary for paper formation: mechanical interlocking, interdiffusion, capillary bridges, hydrogen bonding, Van der Waals forces, and Coulomb forces on the bonding energy.Currently, the majority of industrial pulp fibers are manufactured from wood.The process of papermaking has remained basically intact since its beginning.Experimental results quantify the area in molecular contact necessary for bonding.Atomic force microscopy experiments derive the impact of mechanical interlocking. A model based on the crystal structure of cellulose leads to values for the chemical bonds.This study characterizes bond formation between pulp fibers leading to insight that could be potentially used to optimize the papermaking process, while reducing energy and wood consumption.Paper is a composite material that has been used for a long time.This bonding is fully reversible, which makes paper an easily recyclable material.Upon immersion in water with concomitant stirring, paper disintegrates into its component fibers, the resulting suspension can be reused in the papermaking process.