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Biomass can be converted into biofuels through a variety of routes such as physical, thermochemical, chemical, and biological methods.The common and important biofuels for bioenergy include charcoal, biochar, biodiesel, bioethanol, biobutanol, pyrolysis and liquefaction bio-oils, synthesis gas (syngas), biogas, and biohydrogen, etc.
These findings suggest that simple blending could improve the properties of biodiesel or bio-oil tremendously, which is worthy of further investigation.
Aside from using bio-oil as a precursor for biodiesel , biodiesel could be directly synthesized using other oil materials such as Australian native stone fruit oil , rapeseed oil ,  and soursop seed oil  via transesterification techniques.
Bio-oils can be synthesized from sewage sludge by using pyrolysis techniques .
Taguchi optimization suggested the best pyrolysis was performed at 450 °C, 60 min and 10 °C/min, which also showed consistency with other research work.
Liquid lipase-based esterification was attempted and optimized using RSM to enhance the usage of water removal agent in the system .
In Anwar et al’s,  work, it was found that by blending papaya oil biodiesel with varying contents (5–20%) with diesel could improve the engine testing properties.In recent years, gasification also garners high interest due to its rapid processing step and high yield of syngas which could be directly used for combustion.One of the main constitutes of syngas is hydrogen which usually provides high calorific value.In two research works [1,2], the combination of physical treatment (ball milling) and chemical treatment (ethanol organosolv) showed improved glucan digestibility.Three different biomasses such as giant miscanthus, corn stover and wheat straw were pretreated with ball milling and ethanol organosolv and the overall biomass size was reduced as a result of the prolonged pre-treatment .Transesterification of Australian native stone biodiesel showed a high yield of 95.8% with the response surface methodology optimization and its quality fulfilled the ASTM D6751 and EN14214 requirements .  investigate both direct acid and base-transesterification on biomass which gave 111% yield of FAME and 102% yield of FAME, respectively, which were regarded as of good biodiesel quality.  used soursop seed to produce bio-oil which was eventually upgraded to biodiesel using a two-step acid catalyzed transesterification.The biodiesel produced met both EN14214 and D6751 standards.  performed rapeseed transesterification with KOH catalyst as well as with the aid of ultrasound whereby the kinetic behavior obeyed a pseudo-first order trend.As observed, a majority of the publications (twenty-three papers) focus on experimental work to improve or explore novel technologies for energy-products synthesis, while three papers focus on modelling studies and two papers focus on literature review studies.The following discussion highlights and groups the research findings in accordance to the corresponding research field or work.Published submissions are related to the most important techniques and analysis applied to the biofuel and bioenergy technology.In summary, the edition and selections of papers for this special issue are very inspiring and rewarding.