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By creating a wormhole or apply- ing rushing attacks, the attackers can prevent good routes from being discovered, and increase their chance of being on discovered routes.Once an attacker is on a certain route, it can create a black hole by dropping all the packets passing through it, or create a gray hole by selectively dropping some packets passing through it.
Various schemes have been proposed to handle jamming attack in the literature.
One way to handle jamming attack is to design robust physical layer technologies, such as spread spectrum, which are resistant to RF jamming [7, 7, 77].
Later, Capkun and Hubaux have investigated secure routing in ad hoc networks in which security associations exist only between a subset of all pairs of nodes .
However, most of the existing secure routing schemes have focused on prevent- ing illegitimate nodes from being on the routes.
Some performance comparison among various rout- ing protocols have been demonstrated in .