What Is Logic And Critical Thinking

What Is Logic And Critical Thinking-1
So it was reasonable for an illiterate 14th century peasant in Europe, for example, to believe that "Bubonic plague is caused by demon possession." even though we know that it is caused by the bacterial infection Yersinia pestis.

So it was reasonable for an illiterate 14th century peasant in Europe, for example, to believe that "Bubonic plague is caused by demon possession." even though we know that it is caused by the bacterial infection Yersinia pestis.

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We can also allow that people believe or disbelieve claims with different degrees of conviction. In general, to be rational, our beliefs should be sensitive to the evidence and our conviction about them should be proportional to the strength of that evidence.

You might both believe that "the woman who raised me is my mother," and "The Raiders will win the next Superbowl," but you believe the first one with more conviction, more assurance, and more confidence than the last one. So for a rational person, their evidence will reflect the three attitudes that they can take toward a proposition: A person's evidence can lead them astray.

When people believed that the earth was flat, in fact, it was not.

The truth was that the earth was (and is) spherical. Evil demon possession does not cause bubonic plague.

So many people believed that the earth is flat, for example. Belief is subjective because it is dependent upon an individual to possess it. Smith, for example, believes, "Americans never went to the moon." Smith also believes, "There are 12 months on a yearly calendar." Smith's first belief is false, although she takes it to be true. Beliefs can align, or diverge from the objective state of affairs in the world.

Beliefs aren't true simply in virtue of being believed.So you either believe, disbelieve, or suspend judgment about the proposition, "The Earth is flat." You might be able to acknowledge why someone else might see it differently, you might even be able to recognized the evidence that would lead them to believe something else.But once we have clarified a claim, you must either believe, disbelieve, or suspend judgment about it, but you cannot both believe and disbelieve it at the same time.The widespread conviction that the Sun orbits the Earth before Copernicus did not make that claim true.The Earth was orbiting the Sun while lots of people on Earth had an erroneous belief about reality in their heads.We form beliefs about it on the basis of our information.The truth is objective—it does not depend upon people. emains what it is whether we form beliefs about it or not.We will be making reference to and building on these all semester. Belief To believe a claim is to assent to it or to have an attitude towards it such that you think it is true.It may or may not be true, but to believe it is to think that it is.Students critically evaluate world philosophies, religions, cultural influences, and history, and analyze deductive and inductive proofs through categorical and sentential logic.Credits: 3.0 This program and participation is governed by the terms of the BHMT Student Agreement.


Comments What Is Logic And Critical Thinking

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